Through retrospective analysis of the literature on the cell repair of spinal cord injury worldwide, it is found that the mechanism of cell transplantation repairing spinal cord injury is mainly to replace damaged neurons, protect host neurons, prevent apoptosis, promote axonal regeneration and synapse formation, promote myelination, and secrete trophic factors or growth factors to improve microenvironment. A variety of cells are used to repair spinal cord injury. Stem cells include multipotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The multipotent stem cells are mainly various types of mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. Non-stem cells include olfactory ensheathing cells and Schwann cells. Transplantation of inhibitory interneurons to alleviate neuropathic pain in patients is receiving widespread attention. Different types of cell transplantation have their own advantages and disadvantages, and multiple cell transplantation may be more helpful to the patient’s functional recovery. These cells have certain effects on the recovery of neurological function and the improvement of complications, but further exploration is needed in clinical application. The application of a variety of cell transplantation, gene technology, bioengineering and other technologies has made the prospect of cell transplantation more extensive. There is a need to find a safe and effective comprehensive treatment to maximize and restore the patient’s performance.
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Capital Medical University
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Life Sciences and Medicine