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Review | Open Access

Bacterial outer membrane vesicle-based cancer nanovaccines

Xiaoyu Gao1,2Qingqing Feng1Jing Wang3 ( )Xiao Zhao1,2,4 ( )
CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Center of Drug Evaluation, National Medical Products Administration, Beijing 100022, China
IGDB-NCNST Joint Research Center, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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Tumor vaccines, a type of personalized tumor immunotherapy, have developed rapidly in recent decades. These vaccines evoke tumor antigen-specific T cells to achieve immune recognition and killing of tumor cells. Because the immunogenicity of tumor antigens alone is insufficient, immune adjuvants and nanocarriers are often required to enhance anti-tumor immune responses. At present, vaccine carrier development often integrates nanocarriers and immune adjuvants. Among them, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are receiving increasing attention as a delivery platform for tumor vaccines. OMVs are natural nanovesicles derived from Gram-negative bacteria, which have adjuvant function because they contain pathogen associated molecular patterns. Importantly, OMVs can be functionally modified by genetic engineering of bacteria, thus laying a foundation for applications as a delivery platform for tumor nanovaccines. This review summarizes 5 aspects of recent progress in, and future development of, OMV-based tumor nanovaccines: strain selection, heterogeneity, tumor antigen loading, immunogenicity and safety, and mass production of OMVs.



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Cancer Biology & Medicine
Pages 1290-1300
Cite this article:
Gao X, Feng Q, Wang J, et al. Bacterial outer membrane vesicle-based cancer nanovaccines. Cancer Biology & Medicine, 2022, 19(9): 1290-1300.








Web of Science




Received: 28 July 2022
Accepted: 24 August 2022
Published: 22 September 2022
©2022 Cancer Biology & Medicine.

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