To improve the effectiveness of recycling, echelon utilization, and recovery mechanism of waste power batteries (WPBs), 12 recycling modes were proposed based on extended producer-responsibility principle. By employing profit and sensitivity analyses, we found that resource-recovery companies (Rs) are the key for recycling, echelon utilization, and recovery mechanism. For R, the high resale price of waste LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 batteries was not conducive to recovering waste batteries. However, the recycling behavior of R was beneficial for resisting the risk of high resale price of waste LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 batteries. This condition increased the profits by saving on the buying cost and reselling of WPBs to echelon-utilization companies. Following the decrease in the number of recyclers in the recycling system, the profits of R also increased. However, when the proportion of recycled waste LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 batteries was 100%, the profits of R faced risks due to the high resale price of waste LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 batteries. For other recyclers, only the power-battery manufacturers (Ms) were willing to reduce the resale price of waste LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 batteries to let R earn profit because R supplied regenerated materials to M at a lower price than the material companies. This condition created a cycle for WPB recovery and reduced the use of raw materials. Thus, Mode M–R was considered as the optimal recycling mode.
This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51974262).
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).