AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
Article Link
Submit Manuscript
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Original Research | Open Access

Comparative analysis of recycling modes of power batteries based on extended producer-responsibility principle

Shuyuan ChenaMengjun Chena( )Jiancheng ShuaYi Denga,b
Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle (SWUST), Ministry of Education, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China
Solid Waste and Chemical Management Technology Center of the Ministry of Ecological Environment, Beijing 100000, China
Show Author Information


To improve the effectiveness of recycling, echelon utilization, and recovery mechanism of waste power batteries (WPBs), 12 recycling modes were proposed based on extended producer-responsibility principle. By employing profit and sensitivity analyses, we found that resource-recovery companies (Rs) are the key for recycling, echelon utilization, and recovery mechanism. For R, the high resale price of waste LiNixMnyCo1−xyO2 batteries was not conducive to recovering waste batteries. However, the recycling behavior of R was beneficial for resisting the risk of high resale price of waste LiNixMnyCo1−xyO2 batteries. This condition increased the profits by saving on the buying cost and reselling of WPBs to echelon-utilization companies. Following the decrease in the number of recyclers in the recycling system, the profits of R also increased. However, when the proportion of recycled waste LiNixMnyCo1−xyO2 batteries was 100%, the profits of R faced risks due to the high resale price of waste LiNixMnyCo1−xyO2 batteries. For other recyclers, only the power-battery manufacturers (Ms) were willing to reduce the resale price of waste LiNixMnyCo1−xyO2 batteries to let R earn profit because R supplied regenerated materials to M at a lower price than the material companies. This condition created a cycle for WPB recovery and reduced the use of raw materials. Thus, Mode M–R was considered as the optimal recycling mode.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Download File(s)
cec-1-2-100013_esm.docx (708.4 KB)



Adedoyin, F. F., Alola, A. A., & Bekun, F. V. (2021). The alternative energy utilization and common regional trade outlook in EU-27: Evidence from common correlated effects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 145, 111092.

China Automotive Technology & Research Center Co. Ltd. (2020). Annual report on the development of new energy vehicle power battery industry in China, 2020.

Fragkos, P., van Soest, H. L., Schaeffer, R., Reedman, L., Koberle, A. C., Macaluso, N., Evangelopoulou, S., de Vita, A., Sha, F., Chai Q. M., Jiang, K., Ritu, M., Swapnil, S., Retno, G. D., Silva, H. D., Ken, O., Shinichiro, F., Chan, P., George, S., et al. (2021). Energy system transitions and low-carbon pathways in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, EU-28, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russia and the United States. Energy, 216, 119385.


Li, H. L., Chen, Y. Z., Song, W. J., Tu, X. L., Feng, Z. P., Huang, D. X., & Wu, W. F. (2018). Electrode material recycling mode and economic analysis of lithium-ion power battery. Advances in New and Renewable Energy, 6(6), 505-511. (in Chinese).


Liu, C. W., Lin, J., Cao, H. B., Zhang, Y., & Sun, Z. (2019). Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries in view of lithium recovery: A critical review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 228, 801-813.


Liu, Z. W., Liu, X. L., Hao, H., Zhao, F. Q., Amer, A. A., & Babiker, H. (2020). Research on the critical issues for power battery reusing of new energy vehicles in China. Energies, 13, 1932.


Martins, L. S., Guimarães, L. F., Botelho, A. B. Jr, Tenório, J. A. S., & Espinosa, D. C. R. (2021). Electric car battery: An overview on global demand, recycling and future approaches towards sustainability. Journal of Environmental Management, 295, 113091.

Pan, X. (2020). Analysis on the current situation of power battery recycling and utilization in China and development suggestions. In Proceedings of the 2020 Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences Science and Technology Annual Conference, Jiangsu, China.

Salvia, M., Reckien, D., Pietrapertosa, F., Eckersley, P., Spyridaki, N. A., Krook-Riekkola, A., Olazabal, M., de Gregorio Hurtado, S., Simoes, S. G., Geneletti, D., Viguie, V., Fokaides, Paris A., Ioannou, B. I., Flamos, A., Csete, M. S., Buzasi, A., Buzasi, A., de Boer, C., Foley, A., et al. (2021). Will climate mitigation ambitions lead to carbon neutrality? An analysis of the local-level plans of 327 cities in the EU. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 135, 110253.


Umar, M., Ji, X. F., Kirikkaleli, D., & Alola, A. A. (2021). The imperativeness of environmental quality in the United States transportation sector amidst biomass-fossil energy consumption and growth. Journal of Cleaner Production, 285, 124863.


Williams, J. H., Jones, R. A., Haley, B., Kwok, G., Hargreaves, J., Farbes, J., & Torn, M. S. (2021). Carbon-neutral pathways for the United States. AGU Advances, 2, e2020AV000284.


Wu, Z. L., Shao, Q. L., Su, Y. T., & Zhang, D. (2021). A socio-technical transition path for new energy vehicles in China: A multi-level perspective. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 172, 121007.


Wu, Y. F., Yang, L. Y., Tian, X., Li, Y. M., & Zuo, T. Y. (2020). Temporal and spatial analysis for end-of-life power batteries from electric vehicles in China. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 155, 104651.


Xu, J.L., Zhang, T.Z., Yu, H.J., Xie, Y.H., Zhang, X.M., & Wu, B.B. (2022). Carbon reduction benefit analysis based on traction battery recycling. China Auto, 2022(4), 31-36. (in Chinese)


Yang, Z. J., Huang, H. B., & Lin, F. (2022). Sustainable electric vehicle batteries for a sustainable world: Perspectives on battery cathodes, environment, supply chain, manufacturing, life cycle, and policy. Advanced Energy Materials, 12, 2200383.

Circular Economy
Article number: 100013
Cite this article:
Chen S, Chen M, Shu J, et al. Comparative analysis of recycling modes of power batteries based on extended producer-responsibility principle. Circular Economy, 2022, 1(2): 100013.








Received: 17 July 2022
Revised: 21 August 2022
Accepted: 30 August 2022
Published: 21 September 2022
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Tsinghua University Press.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (