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Research Article | Open Access

Influence of equiatomic Zr/(Ti,Nb) substitution on microstructure and ultra-high strength of (Ti,Zr,Nb)C medium-entropy ceramics at 1900 ℃

Qingqing YANGaXingang WANGa( )Weichao BAOaPing WUaXiaofei WANGaXiaojie GUOaCheng ZHANGbGuojun ZHANGcDanyu JIANGa
State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418, China
Institute of Functional Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China
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Graphical Abstract


High-temperature mechanical properties of medium-entropy carbide ceramics have attracted significant attention. Tailoring the microstructure is an effective way to improve these high-temperature mechanical properties, which can be affected by the evolution of the enthalpy and entropy, as well as by lattice distortion and sluggish diffusion. In this study, the effects of equiatomic Zr/(Ti,Nb) substitution (Zr content of 10–40 at%) on the microstructure and high-temperature strength of (Ti,Zr,Nb)C medium-entropy ceramics were investigated. The grain size of the (Ti,Zr,Nb)C medium-entropy ceramics was refined from 9.4±3.7 to 1.1±0.4 μm with an increase in the Zr content from 10.0 to 33.3 at%. A further increase in the Zr content to 40 at% resulted in a slight increase in the grain size. At 1900 ℃, the (Ti,Zr,Nb)C medium-entropy ceramics with the Zr contents of 33.3 and 40 at% exhibited ultra-high flexural strengths of 875±43 and 843±71 MPa, respectively, which were higher than those of the transition metal carbides previously reported under similar conditions. Furthermore, relatively smooth grain boundaries, which were detected at a test temperature of 1000 ℃, transformed into curved and serrated boundaries as the temperature increased to 1900 ℃, which may be considered the primary reason for the improved high-temperature flexural strength. The associated mechanism was analyzed and discussed in detail.


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Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 1457-1465
Cite this article:
YANG Q, WANG X, BAO W, et al. Influence of equiatomic Zr/(Ti,Nb) substitution on microstructure and ultra-high strength of (Ti,Zr,Nb)C medium-entropy ceramics at 1900 ℃. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2022, 11(9): 1457-1465.








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Received: 21 February 2022
Revised: 15 June 2022
Accepted: 16 June 2022
Published: 17 August 2022
© The Author(s) 2022.

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